Monthly Archives: September 2017

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Inequality and Demographic Response to Short-Term Economic Stress in North Orkney, Scotland, 1855–1910: Sector Differences

By |September 20th, 2017|

Population Studies

Jennings, Julia A.*, Luciana Quaranta, and Tommy Bengtsson

ABSTRACT

We examine economic inequality and social differences in infant and child mortality, and fertility responses to food price changes in North Orkney, 1855–1910, using linked vital records. This small population featured a diverse occupational structure, limited land resources, and geographic isolation from mainland Scotland. Segments of Orkney’s […]

Reducing Urban Violence: A Contrast of Public Health and Criminal Justice Approaches

By |September 20th, 2017|

Epidemiology

Cerdá, Magdalena, Melissa Tracy*, and Katherine M. Keyes

ABSTRACT

Background: Cities are investing millions in Cure Violence, a public health approach to reduce urban violence by targeting at-risk youth and redirecting conflict to non-violent responses. The impact of such a program compared to criminal justice responses is unknown because experiments directly comparing criminal justice and public health […]

Weighing the Value of the Bargain: Prosecutorial Discretion After Sentencing Guidelines

By |September 15th, 2017|

Criminal Justice Policy Review

Vance, Stephen E., Kerry M. Richmond, James C. Oleson, and Shawn D. Bushway*

ABSTRACT

There is little empirical research to indicate whether the introduction of sentencing guidelines displaces discretion from judges to prosecutors. In the handful of studies that examine the hydraulic displacement of discretion, discretion is usually measured by the rate of charge […]

Blame Their Mothers: Public Opinion About Maternal Employment as a Cause of Juvenile Delinquency

By |September 15th, 2017|

Feminist Criminology

Pickett, Justin T*

ABSTRACT

Juvenile justice reformers and practitioners have long blamed mothers for juvenile delinquency, identifying maternal employment as a key cause of youthful offending. The current study uses data from registered voters (N = 10,144) to examine public views about whether maternal employment in two-parent households promotes juvenile delinquency. The results show that only […]

Voting Preferences and Perceived Juvenile Crime Trends: Examining Racial and Political Differences

By |September 15th, 2017|

Criminal Justice Policy Review

Mears, Daniel P., and Justin T. Pickett*

ABSTRACT

This article seeks to contribute to theory and research on factors that shape public preferences for juvenile justice policy. To this end, it tests the argument that perceptions about juvenile crime, an instrumental concern, will influence individuals’ willingness to vote for policymakers who support transfer of […]

Sexual Risk during Initial Months in US among Latina Young Adults

By |September 15th, 2017|

AIDS Care

Ertl, Melissa M., Frank R. Dillon, Yajaira A. Cabrera Tineo, Michael Verile, Janine M. Jurkowski*, and Mario De La Rosa

ABSTRACT

Latina young adults are disproportionately at risk for sexually transmitted infections (e.g., HIV). However, little is known about social and cultural factors contributing to sexual health disparities among young adult Latina recent immigrants. The present […]

The Impact of Changing Demographic Composition on Aggravated Assault Victimization During the Great American Crime Decline: A Counterfactual Analysis of Rates in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas

By |September 5th, 2017|

Criminal Justice Review

Kaylen, Maria, William Alex Pridemore*, and Sean Patrick Roche

ABSTRACT

The United States experienced a dramatic decline in interpersonal violence rates between the early 1990s and mid-2000s. This decline, however, was much steeper in urban and suburban relative to rural areas. Prior research showed changing demographic composition can account for a substantial amount of change […]

Racial Differences in Neighborhood Attainment: The Contributions of Interneighborhood Migration and In Situ Change

By |September 5th, 2017|

Demography

Huang, Ying, Scott J. South*, and Amy Spring

ABSTRACT

Recent research shows that as they age, blacks experience less improvement than whites in the socioeconomic status of their residential neighborhoods. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and U.S. decennial censuses, we assess the relative contribution of residential mobility and in situ neighborhood change (i.e., […]

Association Between Food Distress and Smoking Among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Adults, Schenectady, New York, 2013-2014

By |September 5th, 2017|

Preventing Chronic Disease

Hosler, Akiko S.*, and Isaac H. Michaels

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Smoking and poor nutrition are 2 leading preventable causes of death. This study investigated associations between smoking and indicators of individual- and neighborhood-level food distress among racially and ethnically diverse urban adults. Methods: We analyzed data from a health interview survey and a food environment assessment […]

Neighborhood Social Control and Perceptions of Crime and Disorder in Contemporary Urban China

By |September 5th, 2017|

Criminology

Zhang, Lening, Steven F. Messner*, and Sheldon Zhang

ABSTRACT

By drawing on the two streams of Western literature on “neighborhood effects” and perceptions of neighborhood disorder adapted to the distinctive organizational infrastructure of neighborhoods in contemporary urban China, we examine the contextual effects of different forms of neighborhood social control (i.e., collective efficacy, semipublic control, public control, […]